Slang and non-official lingo may vary from store to store, but here's a few of the more common terms:
Traditional or drip: regular coffee.
Addshot: an extra shot of espresso added to a drink.
For-here: In a ceramic mug or glass for the customer who's planning to hang around to drink their drink, and doesn't want to waste a paper cup and plastic lid.
Zebra: a mocha or hot chocolate using half regular mocha and half white chocolate.
Spin: Every ten or fifteen minutes, someone is supposed to go through the store, bus the tables, wipe things down, clean and restock the condiment bar, check on the bathroom, and just generally neaten up. This is a spin.
Slide: For greater efficiency (and to reduce repetitive stress injuries) baristas are supposed to trade positions every now and then. The person working the espresso machine goes to the registers, etc. This is sliding.
Ten: In many areas, labor laws require a certain number of ten minute breaks in a shift. One of these is referred to as a Ten.