Yes, the same way there's a difference between different types of beer or wine.
Coffee beans grown in different locations will be a little different from each other. Different growing techniques, seasons, fertilizers — all kinds of things can change the exact nature of the bean. On top of that, there are different ways of roasting the beans that have a huge impact on the final product.
These days Starbucks coffee is divvied into categories according to how “dark” the roast is. A really dark roast like Italian Roast will taste way different from a light roast like Veranda.
Baristas are required to sample the various coffees for sale. If you ask one, they can give you an idea of what you might want to try.
In case you're wondering (and you probably weren't), my personal favorite is Verona.